In recent times, polymer nanocomposites have attracted a great deal of scientific interest due to their unique advantages over conventional plastic materials, such as superior strength, modulus, thermal stability, thermal and electrical conductivity, and gas barrier. They are finding real and fast-growing applications in wide-ranging fields such as automotive, aerospace, electronics, packaging, and sports. This book focuses on the development of polymer nanocomposites as an advanced material for textile applications, such as fibers, coatings, and nanofibers. It compiles and details cutting-edge research in the science and nanotechnology of textiles with special reference to polymer nanocomposites in the form of invited chapters from scientists and subject experts from various institutes from all over the world. They include authors who are actively involved in the research and development of polymer nanocomposites with a wide range of functions—including antimicrobial, flame-retardant, gas barrier, shape memory, sensor, and energy-scavenging—as well as medical applications, such as tissue engineering and wound dressings, to create a new range of smart and intelligent textiles. Edited by Mangala Joshi, a prominent nanotechnology researcher at the premier Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, India, this book will appeal to anyone involved in nanotechnology, nanocomposites, advanced materials, polymers, fibers and textiles, and technical textiles.