This book is the fifth volume in the successful book series Robot Operating System: The Complete Reference. The objective of the book is to provide the reader with comprehensive coverage on the Robot Operating System (ROS), which is currently considered to be the primary development framework for robotics applications, and the latest trends and contributing systems. The content is divided into six parts. Pat I presents for the first time the emerging ROS 2.0 framework, while Part II focuses on multi-robot systems, namely on SLAM and Swarm coordination. Part III provides two chapters on autonomous systems, namely self-driving cars and unmanned aerial systems. In turn, Part IV addresses the contributions of simulation frameworks for ROS. In Part V, two chapters explore robotic manipulators and legged robots. Finally, Part VI presents emerging topics in monocular SLAM and a chapter on fault tolerance systems for ROS. Given its scope, the book will offer a valuable companion for ROS users and developers, helping them deepen their knowledge of ROS capabilities and features.